Table of Contents for #34 Pendulums:
Preparation and Support
A TOPS Teaching Model Getting Ready Gathering Materials Sequencing Activities Gaining a Whole Perspective Review/Test Questions Long Range Objectives
Activities and Lesson Notes
- 1. Marching Pendulums
- 2. Clock Pendulums
- 3. Heavier or Longer?
- 4. Little Swings - Big Swings
- 5. How Long Is a Pendulum?
- 6. Counting Cycles
- 7. Pendulum Squares
- 8. Predicting Frequency
- 9. Table-Edge Graph
- 10. Graph Your Pendulums
- 11. Paper Clip Mathematics
- 12. Chain Graph
- 13. Pendulum Pushes
- 14. Energy Transfer
- 15. Penny Hypnosis
- 16. Square Root of Two
- 17. Half Life
- 18. Foucault's Pendulum
- 19. Ups and Downs
- 20. Sea Shells and Such
Supplementary Cut Outs
table-edge graph amplitude chart earth map
Complete Master List for #34 Pendulums:
Key: (1st/2nd/3rd) denote needed quantities: (1st) enough for 1 student doing all activities; (2nd) enough for 30 students working in self-paced pairs; (3rd) enough for 30 students working in pairs on the same lesson. Starred* items may be purchased below.
- * 1/2/2: boxes paper clips of uniform size and weight
- * 1/2/2: spools of thread
- 1/15/15: pairs of scissors
- * 1/2/2: rolls masking tape
- 1/15/15: wristwatches to measure seconds (or a wall clock visible to all)
- 1/5/15: meter sticks
- 2/20/30: styrofoam cups
- * 1/5/15: plastic drinking straws
- * 2/10/30: rubber bands
- 10/60/150: pennies
- 1/5/15: wire clothes hangers
- 3/15/45: heavy books
- 1/1/1: ball string
- * 3/15/45: clothespins
- 1/5/15: felt-tip pens -- must be smooth and free-flowing
These are handy lab items to keep in stock. We use them as bulb holders, tongs, clips, and more.
size #1, steel, box of 100
Paper clips have 1001 uses in TOPS experiments, and science in general. Feel free to use paper clips you already have, but be aware that different brands come in different sizes and weights. In experiments where uniformity is important, don't mix brands.
Stopper - rubber
black rubber, size #6, no hole
Used in #09 Floating and Sinking, #14 Kinetic Model, and #22 Machines.
Straws - straight
Any length straw, between 0.20 and 0.25 inches in diameter is suitable. Grocery stores generally carry straws with flexible "elbows." You can use those if you cut off the bendable section before using.
Tape - masking
3/4 inch x 55 yd roll
A handy science supply used in most TOPS modules.
light duty, 25 yd spool
Just plain old thread. Used in many TOPS titles, especially in Pendulums #34.
Teaching Tips for #34 Pendulums:
We encourage improvisation - it's one of the main goals of our hands-on approach! You and your students might invent a simpler, sturdier or more accurate system; might ask a better question; might design a better extension. Hooray for ingenuity! When this occurs, we'd love to hear about it and share it with other educators. Please send ideas and photos to email@example.com.
National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) for #34 Pendulums:
These 20 Activity Sheets promote excellence in science teaching by these NSES criteria:
Teachers of science...
A: ...plan an inquiry-based science program. (p. 30)
B: ...guide and facilitate learning. (p. 32)
C: ...engage in ongoing assessment of their teaching and of student learning. (p. 37)
D: ...design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources needed for learning science. (p. 43)
These 20 Activity Sheets contain fundamental content as defined by these NSES guidelines (p. 109).
Represent a central event or phenomenon in the natural world.
Represent a central scientific idea and organizing principle.
Have rich explanatory power.
Guide fruitful investigations.
Apply to situations and contexts common to everyday experiences.
Can be linked to meaningful learning experiences.
Are developmentally appropriate for students at the grade level specified.
Unifying Concepts and Processes
NSES Framework: Systems, order, and organization Evidence, models and explanation Constancy, change, and measurement Evolution and equilibrium Form and function
Core Concepts/Processes: Explore change, constancy, measurement and pattern in pendulum systems. Study frequency variables that really matter (length); that don't matter (bob weight); that matter a little (amplitude)
Science as Inquiry (content standard A)
NSES Framework: Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations. Design and conduct a scientific investigation. Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data. Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence. Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions. Communicate scientific procedures and explanations Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.
Core Inquiries: Time Pendulums Measure Lengths Record Data Graph Variables Predict Frequency
Physical Science (content standard B)
NSES Framework: Motions and forces Transfer of energy Conservation of energy
Core Content: Explore how length, amplitude and bob weight affect pendulum frequency Collect and graph data Examine energy transfers Sympathetic pulses Half life
History and Nature of Science (content standard G)
NSES Framework: Science as a human endeavor Nature of science History of science
Core Content: Build a working model of Foucault's pendulum.